Monocytes are part of the innate immune system. They migrate to a site of active infection and differentiate into either macrophages or dendritic cells.
Dendritic cells are the information gleening cells of the immune system. They collect information about an infection and then travel back to the lymph nodes to activate T-cells.
Macrophages are part of the innate immune system. They specialize in eating bacteria and other cellular garbage. They are also responsible for releasing the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF.
Kawasaki disease is an acute inflammation of arteries that is due to the overactivation of monocytes.
Acute myocarditis is an inflammatory attack on the heart which can lead to heart failure. This can follow a viral or bacterial infection and involves T-cell targeting of cardiomyocytes.
Septic shock is caused by an overgrowth of bacteria in the vascular system. This promotes the overactivation of macrophages which release large amounts of cytokines (cytokine storm). This causes cardiac depression, vasodilation, leakage of plasma into tissues, and low blood pressure.
Kawasaki Disease -> Monocyte
Kawasaki disease is an acute inflammation of arteries that is due to the overactivation of monocytes. IVIG (Intravenous Immunoglobulin) can be used to inhibit monocytes and promote an anti-inflammatory response by endothelial cells which line the vasculature.
Acute Myocarditis -> Dendritic Cell
Heart failure in acute myocarditis can be treated with the ACE inhibitor, lisinopril. This will help offload fluid and decrease vascular resistance, easing the workload on the heart.
Septic Shock -> Macrophage
Septic shock occurs when a body-wide infection leads to dangerously low blood pressure. This can be treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics, such as carbapenem, which binds to bacterial penicillin-binding protein and inhibits bacterial cell wall formation.