Healthy b-cell
B-Cells are a type of white blood cell that plays an important role in our immune system. They help protect our body from infections by producing antibodies, which recognize and neutralize harmful substances like bacteria and viruses.
Plasma Cell
Plasma Cells are specialized B-Cells that produce and release large amounts of antibodies. They help our body fight off infections and remember how to respond to specific threats in the future.
Memory B-cell
Memory B-Cells are B-Cells that "remember" a specific germ or infection after our body has fought it off. If we encounter the same germ again, these memory cells can quickly produce more antibodies to help protect us from getting sick.
Diseased b-cell
Bruton Disease
Bruton Disease, also known as X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA), is a rare genetic disorder that affects the immune system. People with this condition have a mutation in the BTK gene which leads to very low levels of antibodies, making them more susceptible to infections.
AL Amyloidosis
Amyloid Light Chain (AL) Amyloidosis is a rare disease in which large amounts of antibody proteins form amyloid and build up in organs and tissues. These deposits can damage the organs and cause symptoms like fatigue, swelling, and irregular heartbeat.
Lupus is an autoimmune disease where the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissues and organs. This can cause inflammation, pain, and damage to various parts of the body.
b-cell Treatment
Bruton -> B-cell
Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim treat Bruton Disease by helping to prevent and fight off bacterial infections. These two antibiotics work together to block the bacterial folate pathway which stops the growth of bacteria and can be especially important for people with a weakened immune system.
AL Amyloidosis -> Plasma cell
Bortezomib treats AL Amyloidosis by blocking the proteasome, which is the garbage remover of the cell. This leads to a buildup of garbage in the diseased cells and eventual cell death. This can help reduce the amount of amyloid deposits in the body and improve organ function.
Lupus -> Memory B-cell
 Hydroxychloroquine is a medication that can affect how the immune system works. It blocks a process that usually shows the immune system what to attack, called the presentation of self-antigens on MHC II complexes. By stopping this process, Hydroxychloroquine can help prevent the immune system from mistakenly attacking the body's own cells in Lupus. 

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