Healthy testis
Sperm are tiny reproductive cells that come from males. They have a tail that helps them swim and are needed to fertilize a female's egg during reproduction.
Leydig cell
Leydig cells are found in the Testes and produce the hormone testosterone. Testosterone is important for male growth, development, and the production of Sperm.
The Testis is a male reproductive organ that produces Sperm and hormones like testosterone. 
Diseased testis
oat syndrome
OAT Syndrome is a condition that affects male fertility by causing problems with sperm count, movement, and shape. It can make it difficult for a man to father a child naturally.
Klinefelter syndrome
Klinefelter Syndrome is a genetic condition in which males have an extra X chromosome (XXY). It can cause problems like low testosterone, small testes, and infertility.
Testicular torsion
Testicular Torsion is a painful condition where the spermatic cord, which supports the Testis, gets twisted. This can cut off blood flow to the Testis and cause severe pain and swelling.
testis Treatment
Oat syndrome -> sperm
In vitro fertilization (IVF) treats OAT Syndrome by combining Sperm and eggs in a laboratory, then implanting the fertilized egg into the woman's Uterus. This helps bypass the Sperm issues and increases the chances of a successful pregnancy.
klinefelter syndrome -> leydig cell
Testosterone treats Klinefelter Syndrome by supplementing the low levels of the hormone in the body. This can help improve symptoms like low energy, weak muscles, and delayed puberty.
testicular torsion -> testis
Detorsion surgery treats Testicular Torsion by untwisting the spermatic cord and restoring blood flow to the Testis. The surgeon may also secure the Testis in place to prevent future torsion.

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