healthy testis
Sperm are the male gamete. They carry either an X or a Y chromosome, so it is the male sperm that determines the sex of the baby.
Leydig cell
Leydig cells are cells in the testis that produce and secrete testosterone in response to the HPG axis.
The testes are the male reproductive organs that produce both sperm and sex hormones such as testosterone.
diseased testis
oat syndrome
OAT (oligoasthenoteratozoospermia) syndrome is one of the causes of male infertility. This syndrome is characterized by low sperm count, poor sperm motility, and abnormal sperm shape.
Klinefelter syndrome
Klinefelter syndrome is a genetic disorder where genetic males carry an extra X chromosome (XXY). The extra X causes testicular fibrosis which leads to low testosterone levels.
Testicular torsion
Testicular torsion is caused by the spermatic cord wrapping around itself and cutting off blood supply to the testis. This can cause testicular death if not corrected within 6 hours.
TEstis treatment
Oat syndrome -> sperm
There are currently no good treatments for OAT syndrome. For patients wanting to have children, IVF (in vitro fertilization) is currently considered the best option.
klinefelter syndrome -> leydig cell
As some of the symptoms of Klinefelter syndrome are caused by low testosterone levels, ie breast development, this can be treated with testosterone supplements.
testicular torsion -> testis
Without a supply of blood, the testis will die in about 6 hrs. Because of this, immediate detorsion surgery should be performed to save the testis.

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