Healthy nose
olfactory neuron
Olfactory neurons are neurons found in the nasal cavity. They sample inhaled air for odorants, and convert the "smell" into an electrical signal that is sent to the brain providing the sense of smell.
The paranasal sinuses are hollow cavities in the front of the skull. Their function is not entirely clear, but it is thought that they help to warm and humidify inhaled air.
The nose plays an important role in both the sense of smell, but also in warming, humidifying, and cleaning inhaled air.
Diseased Nose
covid 19
COVID 19 is the diseased caused by the respiratory virus, Sars-CoV-2. It largely affects the respiratory system, but can also affect many other organ systems including the cardiovascular system.
Sinusitis is inflammation of the nasal sinuses. The most common cause is a viral infection which leads to nasal drainage and congestion.
Nose bleed
A nose bleed can have multiple different causes. Common ones include direct trauma, chronic hypertension, coagulation defects, and multiple medications.
Nose Therapy
covid 19 -> olfactory neuron
The replication of the causative agent in COVID 19, Sars-CoV-2 virus, can be inhibited with the drug remdesivir. This medication inhibits the viral RdRp protein which replicates the viral genome.
sinusitis -> sinuses
Sinus congestion can be decreased with nasal decongestants, such as pseudoephedrine. This drug is an alpha adrenergic receptor agonists and also promotes NE release from sympathetic neurons, which cause vasoconstriction and decreases congestion.
nose bleed -> nose
 Severe nose bleed can be treated with oxymetazoline, which is an alpha adrenergic receptor agonist. It promotes vasoconstriction, decreasing blood flood and thus slows bleeding.

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