Oocytes are also known as "eggs". These are the immature female germ cell.
Granulosa cells are important hormone producing cells in female. They produce and secrete both estrogen and progesterone in response to the HPG axis.
The ovaries are the female gonads. They produce and release eggs for reproduction. They also produce important sex hormones.
Down syndrome occurs with the presence of 3 copies of chromosome 21, trisomy 21. This can lead to multiple organ disorders and neurodiversity.
Kallmann syndrome occurs with loss of GnRH neurons in the hypothalamus. This destroys the HPG axis, which leads to a loss of sex hormones.
PCOS (polycystic ovarian syndrome) is a disorder where there are multiple cysts on the ovaries. This leads to low estrogen levels and elevated testosterone levels. This can prevent ovulation and cause infertility.
Down syndrome -> Oocyte
As Down syndrome is a genetic disorder, there are currently no good medications. Patients can benefit from supportive therapy such as physical, speech, and occupational therapy.
kallmann syndrome -> Granulosa cell
Estrogen is important in bone building and puberty/fertility. Because of this, females with Kallmann syndrome can be treated with replacement estrogen to aid in puberty, fertility, and bone health.
pcos -> ovary
Patients with PCOS typically have difficulty becoming pregnant. Letrozole, an aromatase inhibitor, can aid in ovulation and conception.