Basal cells are found at the bottom of the epidermis, sitting on the basement membrane. They are responsible for replicating and replacing skin cells that are lost.
Keratinocytes encompass the very outer layer of the skin. They are filled with the protein keratin which allows them to produce a protective, water-proof barrier.
The skin is the largest organ in the body and provides a protective outer layer. It is composed of 3 separate layers: 1. Epidermis, 2. Dermis, and 3. Hypodermis.
second degree burn
Second degree burns are burns that reach below the basement membrane into the second layer of the skin, the dermis. This can produce blistering and blanches when pressed.
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease. Immune cells infiltrate into the epidermis and stimulate keratinocytes to proliferate. This produces itchy, silvery plaques.
Athlete's Foot is caused by an infection of the dermatophyte fungus trichophyton. Warm, wet environments promote the growth of this fungus which is why it is commonly found between the toes of the foot.
second degree burn -> basal cell
Pain management is an important aspect in burn patients. In non-severe burns, can be used as it inhibits the enzymes COX1/2 and prevents prostaglandin production. This decreases pain and inflammation.
Psoriasis -> keratinocyte
As immune cell-mediated inflammation plays a major role in psoriasis, this presents a good drug target. Methotrexate inhibits the enzyme DHFR which is responsible for synthesizing nucleotides necessary for cell replication. The inhibits immune cell replication and aids in symptom management.
athlete's foot -> Skin
Terbinafine is an antifungal that inhibits the fungal enzyme squalene epoxidase. This produces a toxic buildup of squalene while also depriving the fungus of ergosterol, and important building block of their membrane.